What is the physiological role of growth hormone? Human growth hormone (hGH) is a peptide hormone composed of 191 amino acids secreted by adenohypophyseal growth hormone cells. It is the most important hormone to promote growth after birth. The amount of human growth hormone secretion is about 16-20 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day in childhood, and it increases to 20-38 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day in puberty. Under the influence of exercise, hunger and food, the amount of secretion can increase. Although reduced, it has been maintained until old age.
What about growth hormone?
The physiological role of growth hormone (GH) is very wide, it can not only promote growth, but also regulate the metabolism of substances in the body. First, GH has a growth-promoting effect. GH binds to the growth hormone receptor on its liver to produce insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), and IGF1 binds to the IGF1 receptor of bone cells, thereby promoting bone growth. Increase bone length; in addition, GH binds to GH receptors on chondrocytes, promotes chondrocyte proliferation, and allows bone growth. Second, GH can promote protein synthesis and coordinate with growth promotion. Third, GH has a degrading effect on fat. Patients with GH deficiency have increased subcutaneous fat, especially in the abdomen. After GH treatment, abdominal fat is significantly reduced and distributed to the periphery. Fourth, GH has a complex effect on sugar metabolism. Can reduce the use of glucose in peripheral tissues and reduce the sensitivity of cells to insulin. The effect of GH on sugar metabolism has a difference between short-term and long-term effects. Short-term injection of GH can produce temporary hypoglycemia, and a long-term increase in GH can cause an increase in blood glucose.
In addition, GH has the effects of anti-aging and promoting brain function. After burns and surgery, GH can accelerate tissue repair. In addition, GH also plays a role in enhancing myocardial function, immune function, improving muscle strength and promoting sperm formation and ovulation.
So, what are the indications for growth hormone therapy, how to apply human growth hormone (hGH) is currently not oral, because it is a polypeptide consisting of 191 amino acids, after oral administration, it will be hydrolyzed by gastric acid and intestinal juice or protease. Small peptide chain, biological activity is destroyed. Therefore, there is currently no oral preparation, which can only be injected subcutaneously. The correct application of growth hormone is subcutaneous injection before bed every day to simulate the secretion pattern of human growth hormone. Subcutaneous injections are usually located 2 to 3 cm outside the umbilicus, and the injection site needs to be rotated. Because the subcutaneous fat is rich, the blood flow is good, the bioavailability is good, and the fat layer has fewer nerve endings, which can reduce pain.
What about growth hormone?
The growth hormone treatment process needs to pay attention to what growth hormone is a non-specific protein naturally present in the human body. The clinical application dose is the smallest effective amount, which is safer and more effective, but it does not rule out individual differences. Pay attention to the following points during use:
(1) Insulin-like growth factor IGFI should be tested regularly during the application of treatment. Insulin-like growth factor has the function of promoting cell mitosis. Although there is no report of leukemia or tumor incidence increase in the application of high-dose growth hormone, it should still be closely monitored. It is recommended that the level of insulin-like growth factor should not exceed the upper limit of the normal range of the corresponding age. Those who are higher should suspend medication.
(2) Regularly detect biochemical indicators such as thyroid function, liver function, and blood glucose. When using growth hormone, due to the impact on the function of the pituitary-thyroid axis, about 30% of patients have subclinical hypothyroidism, and sometimes there may be no clinical manifestation of hypothyroidism, so regular review of thyroid function, if there is abnormal supplement Thyroid hormones, so as not to affect the growth rate of height. Also regularly check biochemical indicators such as liver function and blood sugar.
(3) Pay attention to observe the child’s symptoms. After using growth hormone, the child may have headaches, leg pain, joint swelling, edema, etc. These conditions are less frequent. If the child is more sensitive to growth hormone, the above symptoms may be retained by the growth hormone sodium and water. Stimulation to cartilage and epiphysis, insufficient compensation for thyroid function, etc., do not need to be nervous, contact the doctor in time, and you can recover by adjusting the dose or stopping the drug.
(4) Strengthen exercise while using growth hormone. Exercise can promote the secretion of growth hormone, promote bone growth, make bones longer, increase bone density, and help growth hormone achieve the best effect. The best exercise is a moderate-intensity, longitudinal exercise, such as skipping, climbing, climbing stairs, skating, running, ball games, etc.
(5) Strengthen nutrition and balance diet during use. Usually eat foods rich in protein, such as beans, fish, shrimp, lean meat, eggs and so on. Vitamins and various trace elements are also essential to ensure the efficacy.
(6) The current growth hormone preparations are lyophilized powders or liquids, which should be stored at 2-8 ° C to prevent bacterial growth and contaminate medicines. If the drug solution is prepared by powder, it can be stored at 2 ～ 8 ℃ for 72 hours. If transported over long distances, ice packs are required.